Diabetes is excess sugar in the blood this occur when the body fails to produce insulin or the insulin produced is not enough to control the amount of sugar(glucose) in the blood.
Insulin is a hormones produced at the islet of Langerhans (pancreatic islet).
It reduces the level of sugar in the blood, when it is higher than normal. The normal blood glucose level is 70-115mg/dl.
The end product of every carbohydrate food eaten is glucose and It is needed by the body cells to release energy for everyday activities. the instrument use in measuring the amount of glucose in the blood is glucometer. The test is of two type, namely: fasting blood sugar(FBS)-This is done when the person have not eaten usually eight hours before the time of the test. It is normally done in the morning before breakfast.
Random blood sugar(RBS)-This is done when the person have eaten before the test. STOP
We have three(3) types of diabetes mellitus namely:
Type 1 diabetes: In this case the pancreas does not produce insulin thereby leaving the body without insulin to function.
Type 2: In this case the body is able to produce insulin, but the body cells fails to utilize the insulin properly as a result of the body’s resistance to the insulin produced or when the insulin produced is not enough to control the level of sugar in the body.
TYPE 3: Gestational diabetes- this type of diabetes occur as a result of pregnancy and does not need treatment as the level of sugar in the blood usually returns to normal when the woman puts to birth.